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One influential Architect in the Modernism era (relevant for Level 1 students) is Le Corbusier:
Above picture of the renowned architect and artist Le Corbusier:
Short Bio Le Corbusier:
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who was better known as Le Corbusier(French: [lə kɔʁbyzje]; October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-Frencharchitect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout Europe, India, and America.
Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential in urban planning, and was a founding member of the Congrès international d'architecture moderne (CIAM). Corbusier prepared the master plan for the planned city of Chandigarh in India, and contributed specific designs for several buildings there.
Foundation Le Corbusier
See website below for the extensive work of Le Cobusier, which includes art, buidings, publications, biography and more.
Above image: Villa Savoy by Le Corbusier (wikipedia.org).
General information:Type Villa Architectural style Modernist, International Address
82, Rue de Villiers
78300 Poissy Town or city Poissy, Yvelines Country France CoordinatesCurrent tenants Centre des monuments nationaux Construction started 1929 Completed1931 Renovated1963, 1985-1997 OwnerFrench government Technical details Structural system Reinforced concrete Design and constructionArchitect Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret Websitehttp://villa-savoye.monuments-nationaux.fr/References[2
Source of picture: "VillaSavoye" by Valueyou (talk) - I created this work entirely by myself.. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VillaSavoye.jpg#mediaviewer/File:VillaSavoye.jpg
Read more about Le Corbusier and Villa Savoy: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Savoye
Other very important influential designers (Modernism) for Level 1 students are:
Phillip Johnson (Glass House ) below:
Above image: 'The GlassHouse', by architect Phillip Johnson
Influential architect: Walter Gropius (Bauhaus)
What is Bauhaus?
Staatliches Bauhaus (help·info), commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was an art school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the German term Bauhaus (help·info)—literally "house of construction"—was understood as meaning "School of Building".
The Bauhaus was first founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus during the first years of its existence did not have an architecture department. Nonetheless, it was founded with the idea of creating a "total" work of art in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style later became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art, design and architectural education. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.
POWER OF THE PEN IN AN AGE OF MACHINES: By Tina Richardson
DOPA is about the power of the pen in an age of machines. We embrace technology, but know there is a romance about ink on paper, archived, mailed, or held under the light. It is not unlike the romance of a long train trip in Europe, a slower, older way of getting from A to B, but one which puts us in the same place generations before us sat and peered into their world.
We are interested in handwritten communications, an art that is increasing being lost to the computer. Why is it still relevant? Do we need to put the written word on paper when it can be sent faster through digital networks? Who are the people and groups that keep penmanship alive?
Read more at: https://dopasolution.com/about/
“Typography” was published on wikipedia.org, and is shown here in it’s original form. However, this version is designed for WC3, accessibility compliance.
A specimen sheet of the Trajan typeface, which is based on the letter forms of capitalis monumentalis or Roman square capitals used for the inscription at the base of Trajan’s Column, from which the typeface takes its name. SOURCE: https://dopasolution.com/typography/
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning). The term typography is also applied to the style, arrangement, and appearance of the letters, numbers, and symbols created by the process. Type design is a closely related craft, sometimes considered part of typography; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type designers do not consider themselves typographers. Typography also may be used as a decorative device, unrelated to communication of information.
As technology advances, there is help available for those suffering from impairments related to writing. Dyslexia, for example, creates problems for young people learning to write. When others can’t understand what they express with pencil and paper, their broader educational interests may be stifled. In the context of social communication, writing is even more important than it was 20 years ago. We communicate by text messaging, social media, and email. Spoken and in person communication is far less common then it was just twenty years ago. New communication driven by keyboards can be more practical for the person with handwriting problems, but keyboards are not the answer for everyone challenged by handwriting.
Above image: Bauhaus Masters Houses - House Kandinsky-Klee
About the Masters House: In 1925, the city of Dessau also commissioned Walter Gropius with the construction of three semidetached houses for the Bauhaus masters and a detached house for its director. The plot lies in a small pine-tree wood where Ebertallee stands today – one of the axes of the Dessau Wörlitz Garden Realm between the Seven Pillars of the Georgium and Amaliensitz. In 1926, Gropius and the Bauhaus masters László Moholy-Nagy and Lyonel Feininger, Georg Muche and Oskar Schlemmer as well as Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee were able to move in with their families. Source/read more at: http://www.bauhaus-dessau.de/masters-houses.html
Features of Bauhaus architecture:
- Flat roofs
- Grey scale and monotone colours: White, black & grey.
- Open plan layout
- Square and rectangular shapes
- Smooth facades
- Focus on functional aspects (not ornamentation)
- Furniture is functional
The Bauhaus architecture style combined artistic, practical, and social purposes. While it combines them, it also favors functionality over ornamentation and asymetry and regularity over symmetry. It also favors space over mass, meaning that they wish to create space in the building instead of having the building take up the space. Bauhaus architecture rejects decorative details and wished to use Classical architecture and its scientific, geometric aesthetic without ornamentation of any kind. The buildings have flat roofs, smooth facades, and cubic shapes, favoring right angles, although some feature rounded corners and balconies.The colors used are white, gray, black, or beige, dull colors which show the lack of ornamentation and the floor plans are open and the furniture is functional.